British fungi - Keys

Key to Peziza - an updated key from Brian Spooner (published in the Forayer); comments appreciated and, especially, collections which do not fall withing the limits of characters given in the key

by Brian Spooner

 

 

 

1

Spores smooth or finely longitudinally striate under light microscope; guttules usually absent, rarely present

2

 

Spores ornamented with fine (oil immersion!) to coarse warts or reticulum under light microscope; guttules usually present, rarely absent

24

2(1)

In sand dunes, apothecia hypogeous in development, long pseudostipe present (spores 1517 910 m)

ammophila

 

In other habitats; not hypogeous in development; pseudostipe lacking

3

3(2)

Ascospores fusoid, mostly over 30 m long, finely longitudinally striate, with guttules; apothecia on soil, disc violaceous, c. 1 cm across

gerardii

 

Ascospores ellipsoid, shorter than 30 m, not striate; habitat, size and colour of disc various

4

4(3)

Apothecia on dung or manured soil

5

 

Apothecia in other habitats

6

5(4)

Apothecia 510 cm across, thick-fleshed, margin long incurved; gregarious, often densely so; hymenium commonly separating and becoming vesiculose with age; spores mostly 2124 m long, 1114 m wide; on manured soil

vesiculosa

 

Apothecia smaller, 12 cm across, on horse or cow dung; spores 1821 1011 m

fimeti (= bovina)

6(4)

On rotting vegetation; disc pinkish-brown (c. 1.5 cm diam.); spores eguttulate, 1620 810 m

isabellina var. ianthina

 

On various substrates; disc brown, yellowish or violaceous; spores eguttulate or rarely guttulate, larger or smaller than above

7

7(6)

Paraphyses moniliform or with lobed and inflated segments

8

 

Paraphyses simple, lacking inflated or lobed segments

10

8(7)

Paraphyses with distinctly lobed segments; disc yellow-brown; apothecia on wet ground in spring (spores 1618 9.511m)

ninguis var. fortoulii

 

Paraphyses moniliform, lacking lobed segments; disc reddish-brown or fawn to greyish-brown; habitat various

9

9(8)

Spores 1416 810 m; disc fawn to greyish-brown; on sawdust, soil, old plaster or sand (apothecia to 5 cm across)

varia

 

Spores 1922 1011.5 m; disc reddish- brown; on wet ground in spring (apothecia 12.5 cm across)

ninguis var. ninguis

10(7)

Spore length mostly in range 1317 m

11

 

Spore length mostly in range 1824 m

14

11(10)

Apothecia violaceous, on burnt ground (13 cm across); spores 1315 7.58 m

pseudoviolacea

 

Apothecia not violaceous, on other substrata or occasionally on burnt ground, variable in size; spores 1417 810 m

12

12(11)

On rotten wood; short stipe often present; middle layer of interwoven hyphae usually well developed; short stipe often present (spores 1517 8.59.5 m)

micropus

 

On soil, rotten textiles, plaster, brickwork, mortar or on burnt ground; middle layer of interwoven hyphae thin; short stipe present or not

13

13(12)

On plaster, brickwork, mortar etc.; disc pale, yellowish to cream; short stipe sometimes present (spores 1416 89 m)

cerea

 

On soil, rotten textiles or burnt ground; disc fawn-brown; short stipe lacking (spores 1516 89.5 m)

repanda

14(10)

Apothecia brown to yellowish, on wood, wood-chips, sawdust, garden mulch or soil, rarely on burnt ground

15

 

Apothecia dark brown to blackish brown or purple to red-brown or violaceous, on rotten wood or bark, soil or burnt ground

21

15(14)

Apothecia yellowish, on wood chips, compost or mulch; spores narrowly ellipsoid, mostly 89.5 m diam. (1821 m long), ends slightly tapered

aurata

 

Apothecia fawn or darker, on wood or wood chips, or on soil; spores ellipsoid, mostly 1013 m diam.

16

16(15)

Apothecia stipitate, up to 7 cm diam., margin often coarsely granular/pustular; apical cell of paraphyses with distinct yellowish guttules, penultimate cell often somewhat inflated; flesh not distinctly stratified, containing large, thin-walled cells to c. 250 m diam.; on wood- chip mulch in hothouse (spores 2023 1013 m)

megalochondra

 

Apothecia sessile, 15 cm diam., margin not or only finely granular; paraphyses lacking guttules, apical cells sometimes swollen or lobed; flesh stratified or not, lacking such large cells; on rotten wood, sawdust or soil

17

17(16)

On rotten wood or sawdust, rarely on burnt ground; yellow-brown, flesh rather thick and virtually unstratified

18

 

On soil; fawn-brown to red-brown, flesh usually distinctly stratified

19

18(17)

Spores 2225 1112 (13) m; paraphyses apically irregularly swollen, curved and sometimes lobed; on rotten wood

udicola

 

Spores (17) 1821.5 9.511 (12) m; paraphyses not apically so modified; rarely on burnt ground

ampliata

19(17)

Spores 1113 m diam. (1922.5 m long); apothecia small, scarcely over 1 cm across

subrepanda

 

Spores 911 (12) m diam.; apothecia various in size

20

20(19)

Apothecia cupulate, larger, up to 7 cm across, surface finely scurfy towards the margin (spores 1922 m long)

granulosa

 

Apothecia saucer-shaped, smaller, c. 0.53 cm across, surface distinctly granular, margin often with small, irregular teeth (spores (17) 1821 m long)

granularis

21(14)

Apothecia < 1 cm diam., purple-brown; receptacle distinctly warted-granular, margin slightly denticulate; whitish basal anchoring hyphae present; on bark in wet places (spores 1922 1112.5 m)

recedens

 

Apothecia 16 cm diam., dark brown to blackish-brown or violaceous; receptacle scurfy or pustular only at the margin; whitish anchoring hyphae lacking; on damp soil or burnt ground

22

22(21)

Apothecia violaceous, to c. 6 cm diam., basally thick-fleshed; spores guttulate, 1923 m long (1011.5 m wide)

ampelina

 

Apothecia dark brown to blackish-brown, to c. 2 cm diam., thin-fleshed; spores eguttulate, 1720 m long

23

23(22)

Spores 1113 m wide; paraphyses sparsely septate, unbranched above

sepiatra

 

Spores 1011 m wide; paraphyses closely septate and often forked above

sterigmatizans

24(1)

Ascospores with distinct polar apiculae

25

 

Ascospores lacking polar apiculae, but sometimes with warts more prominent at the poles

26

25(24)

Spores 1824 m long; apiculae conical or finger-like; ornament of discrete warts 0.51.5 m across

apiculata

 

Spores 1619 m long; apiculae broad, obtuse; ornament fine, punctate

prosthetica

26(24)

Disc blue, or blue with purple tints; spores 1517 78 (9) m, with very fine punctate ornament; paraphyses straight, with deep purple-brown pigment at apex and scattered over whole length

cf. azureoides

 

Disc not blue; spore size and ornamentation various; paraphyses with or without pigment

27

27(26)

Ascospore ornament a complete or broken reticulum

28

 

Ascospore ornament of warts or ridges, not forming a reticulate pattern

30

28(27)

Ascospores 1620 m long (810 m wide); ornament a broken reticulum of forked and anastomosing ridges; disc olivaceous when fresh; apothecia to 10 cm across, on damp soil or burnt ground

badia

 

Ascospores 1216 m long; ornament complete or not, irregular; disc brown or green, apothecia 0.52 cm across, on soil or litter

29

29(28)

Ascospores 1214.5 6.58.5 m; ornament an irregular network of blunt ridges; disc brown; apothecia on steam-sterilised soil

ostracoderma

 

Ascospores 1416 810 m; ornament a fine, low irregular reticulum; disc green; apothecia soil or litter in hothouses (needs confirmation)

chlorophaea

30(27)

Apothecia on burnt substrates or plaster, less often on sand/mortar/brickwork, or on dunes

31

 

Apothecia on other substrates, soil, rotten wood & litter, or dung

39

31(30)

On dunes or sandy soil; apothecia [26 (10) cm across] purple or purple-brown, mostly with pseudostipe; spores [1619 79 m] with irregular warts to c. 1 m wide, often slightly more pronounced at the poles; paraphyses apically clavate or sub-capitate, 58 m wide

boltonii

 

On burnt ground, plaster, mortar or brickwork; apothecia brown to fawn, mostly lacking pseudostipe; spores more finely ornamented; paraphyses apically narrowly clavate

32

32(31)

Ascospores 15.518 m long, lacking regular, distinct guttules; finely ornamented

33

 

Ascospores mostly 10.514 m long, guttulate or not; finely or coarsely ornamented

34

33(32)

Disc dark brown; ascospores with warts often vertically elongated at the poles; apothecia 28 cm across

echinospora

 

Disc yellow-brown; ascospores with warts not elongated at the poles; apothecia 512 cm across

arvernensis

34(32)

Ascospores with very fine, regular, isolated warts; apothecia violaceous or wine red

35

 

Ascospores coarsely ornamented or with fine, irregular often elongated markings; apothecia brown, whitish or greyish lilac

36

35(34)

Apothecia on burnt substrates, violaceous; paraphyses mostly bent or hooked and irregularly thickened at the apex, and with dark brownish pigment (spores 11.513.5 6.57 m)

violacea

 

Apothecia on plaster, wine red; paraphyses not markedly apically hooked or pigmented (spores 1112.5 66.5 m)

domiciliana

36(34)

Ascospores narrowly ellipsoid, (10) 1113 5.56.5 m, with irregular ornament; apothecia to 10 cm diam., greyish-lilac, receptacle paler

petersii

 

Ascospores broadly ellipsoid, 10.514 69 m, coarsely ornamented; apothecia brown or whitish, 23 cm diam. or sparassoid

37

37(36)

Ascospores ornamented with prominent, wing-like or pyramidal ridges and spines; apothecia dark brown, on burnt calcareous soil

vacini

 

Ascospores ornamented with isolated warts; apothecia whitish or with ochraceous to pinkish tints, on various burnt soils

38

38(37)

Apothecia simple, cupulate

proteana f. proteana

 

Apothecia large, sparassoid

proteana f. sparassoides

39(30)

Ascospores with very fine punctate ornament (oil immersion lens); apothecia on soil, dung or rotten wood

40

 

Ascospore ornament distinct, of isolated or sometimes confluent warts or short ridges; apothecia on soil, compost or rotten wood

43

40(39)

On soil or rotten wood; apothecia lilac or violaceous to purple-brown; spores obscurely to distinctly guttulate; paraphyses with granular, brownish pigment

41

 

On dung; apothecia pale brown; spores eguttulate; paraphyses pigmented or not

42

41(40)

On rotten wood; apothecia 25 cm diam., with dark violaceous or purplish-brown hymenium; spores obscurely guttulate or 1-guttulate (1417 88.5 m)

isabellina var. isabellina

 

On soil; apothecia 1.52.5 cm diam., violaceous, fading to brownish with age; spores with 2 large guttules each 45 m diam. (1415 (16) 89 m)

cf. moseri

42(40)

Paraphyses moniliform; spores 15.517.5 7.58.5 m

merdae

 

Paraphyses simple; spores 1315 (16) 6.58.5 m

moravecii

43(39)

Ascospores eguttulate (spores 1518 89 m, ornamented with fine but distinct isolated or sometimes partly confluent warts)

arvernensis

 

Ascospores with 1 or 2 distinct guttules, or with irregular guttulation

44

44(43)

Apothecia yielding a yellow or yellow-green latex when fresh; spores with 1 or 2 distinct guttules

45

 

Apothecia yielding a bluish latex or none; spores with 1 or 2 distinct guttules or with irregular guttulation

47

45(44)

Ascospores ornamented with fine, often elongated, irregular warts less than 0.5 m high (spores 1517 89 m; apothecia on soil); apothecia 25 cm across

michelii

 

Ascospores ornamented with coarse, irregular, isolated warts 12 m high; apothecia 35 cm across

46

46(45)

Ascospores 1417.5 8.510 m, with a single guttule; warts to c. 1 m high

succosella

 

Ascospores 1719 910 m, with 2 guttules; warts to 2 m high

succosa

47(44)

Natrophilous; ascospores with irregular guttulation and fine, dense, rugulose-punctate ornament (spores 1518 78.5 m; apothecia 14 cm across)

natrophila

 

Not natrophilous; ascospores with 1 or 2 guttules; ornament various

48

48(47)

Apothecia on rotten wood or bark

49

 

Apothecia on soil or litter

51

49(48)

Ascospores 1724 89.5 m, ornamented with isolated, rather regular warts 0.51 m across; receptacle whitish or pale

epixyla

 

Ascospores smaller, 1416.5 m long, ornamented with isolated, irregular, sometimes elongated warts mostly 12 m across; receptacle not whitish

50

50(49)

Ascospores 14.516.5 8.59.5 m, ornamented with isolated, irregular warts commonly 1.52 m across; paraphyses lacking obvious yellow pigment, disc yellow-brown, < 1 cm across

nidulariformis

 

Ascospores 1415 78 (8.5) m, ornamented with warts 0.52 m across; paraphyses with yellow-brown pigment; disc to 6 cm diam., with purple-brown tints

cf. retrocurvata

51(48)

Ascospores mostly less than 16.5 m long

52

 

Ascospores mostly longer than 17 m

55

52(51)

Apothecia yielding a bluish latex, turning violaceous; ascospores narrowly ellipsoid, 78 m diam. (13.515.5 m long)

saniosa

 

Apothecia without coloured latex; ascospores ellipsoid to broadly ellipsoid, 810.5 m diam.

53

53(52)

Ascospores 910.5 m diam. (1416.5 m long), usually with a single guttule; paraphyses with yellow brown encrusting pigment (apothecia 12.5 cm across)

badiofusca

 

Ascospores 89 m diam., with 1 or 2 guttules; paraphyses lacking yellow-brown encrusting pigment

54

54(53)

Ascospores biguttulate, ellipsoid, to 16.5 m long, ornamented with isolated regular warts 0.51 (1.5) m across; apothecia 12 cm across, on compost

labessiana

 

Ascospores with a single guttule, broadly ellipsoid, to 15 m long, ornamented with isolated or sometimes confluent or elongated warts mostly 12 m across; apothecia to 5 cm across, on soil

saccardiana

55(51)

Disc purple or violaceous, to c. 1.5 cm diam.; spores ellipsoid, 911 m diam. (1619 m long), with isolated, mostly regular small warts c. 11.2 m across. Paraphyses without granular pigment but in brownish matrix; on clay soil

celtica

 

Disc brown or if violaceous apothecia larger and spores longer

56

56(55)

Disc lilac or pale violaceous; ascospores narrowly ellipsoid, 89 m diam, with fine, regular, punctate ornament; paraphyses with brownish, granular pigment; apothecia on calcareous soil (spores 19.521 89.5 m); apothecia to 7 cm across

howsei

 

Disc brown to dark brown, sometimes with purple tinge; ascospores narrowly ellipsoid or ellipsoid, ornament various; paraphyses with or without brown pigment; apothecia on various soils; apothecia 15 cm across

57

57(56)

Ascospores commonly broader than 10 m, with isolated, rounded, mostly regular warts which may be higher and more prominent at the poles; disc dark brown to red-brown

58

 

Ascospores mostly 810 m diam., with isolated but sometimes rather irregular, angular or elongated warts, more prominent at the poles or not; disc olive-brown or vinaceous

59

58(57)

Paraphyses with brown pigment; ascospores with warts higher and more prominent at the poles (spores 1719 911 m; apothecia to c. 34 cm across)

depressa

 

Paraphyses lacking brown pigment; ascospore warts not higher and more prominent at the poles (spores 1721 1012 m; apothecia 13 cm across)

brunneoatra

59(57)

Ascospores with rather coarse irregular, angular, curved or elongated warts to c. 2 m across; paraphyses lacking granular pigment; apothecia on wet ground; disc with olivaceous tints. (apothecia (2) 35 cm across; spores 17.521.5 8.510 m)

limnaea

 

Ascospores with fine, regular or irregular to angular warts 0.5 (1) m across, often more prominent at the poles; paraphyses with distinct brown pigment; apothecia on damp but not wet soil; disc vinaceous, lacking olivaceous tints. (apothecia 13 (5) cm across; spores 17.520 (-22) 8.510 m)

lividula

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